My interest is in dark matter mostly and its affects on our universe aswell as the galaxies that float around in it. What its gravitational properties do to these objects and what not? And on anti matter i have very little understanding of that too. Thank you.

Comments:

Antimatter is matter that has equal mass and opposite charge to normal matter. If it comes into contact with normal matter it causes mutual annihilation. Examples of antimatter are positrons, anti protons, anti neutrons etc. Here is antimatter (positrons) coming off a block of Potassium as protons decay into neutrons.

As for dark matter.

Dark matter is matter we don’t understand and can’t see. It is speculated the vast majority of the universe is made of Dark matter, which remember is a generic term for any matter we can’t see. We know it exists by the gravitational influence it has on matter we can see. As for the galaxies, we have observed that galaxies rotate in a strange way, namely the stars on the outer arms of the spirals orbit the centre of the galaxy roughly as fast as the stars close to the centre. This is not how gravity is supposed to work. Look at our solar system Mercury orbits the Sun every 88 days or so, Earth every 365 days and Neptune every 185 Earth years. So we expect the stars in the outer reaches of the galaxy to take longer to complete their orbits than those close to the centre. Since this is not the case there must be a heck of a lot more matter in this and every other galaxy than we can see with our telescopes.

Just remember dark matter simply means “we don’t know the heck it is”, the same goes for dark energy and dark flow, these are just words to describe something astronomers have observed that cosmologists and theoretical physicists can’t yet explain.

If dark matter makes up 96% of the universe, and visible matter only 4%, then is there dark matter around, on, or in the Earth or is it all out in space somewhere?

Comments:

George is close. Dark matter exists in large halos which envelope galaxies. The dark matter halos can have an arbitrary shape, in fact many people have made “maps” of the dark matter by looking at gravitational lenses. The size of the halo can be a few to many tens of times larger than the galaxy which resides in side of the halo. Many very large halos can host several galaxies (though rarely more than a few galaxies per halo).

The mistake George makes is when he says that it’s “near the Galactic center”. This is very false. The galactic center is *inside* a dark matter halo. In fact, the center of the halo and the galaxy need not be the same, such as in the case of this galaxy cluster:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bullet_Cluster

Also, since the dark halos host galaxies, and earth is in a galaxy, then earth is in a dark halo. Therefore, dark matter *EXISTS* all around us, even here on Earth. There are several major experiments set up to detect dark matter and measure it’s properties. You can learn about a famous experiment at:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryogenic_Dark_Matter_Search

Dark matter is the molasses of the cosmos, as I understand it, and it can’t influence gravity. I understand that it is a bit like steam in an engine, keeping the train in motion. Correct me if I’m wrong.

Comments:

Dark matter is a lot like normal matter, but with one crucial exception: it doesn’t interact with the electromagnetic force. This means there is no electromagnetic attraction or repulsion, no interaction with light or any other form of EMR. Of course, the only reason we think this is because we can’t see it. Dark matter makes up for a huge percentage of the universe’s mass, and yet…we can’t see it. We can however, see it’s effects.

Dark matter still interacts with and exudes the gravitational force, and we can see this effect in a phenomenon known as Gravitational Lensing. Essentially, when we look into the sky and take pictures (with the Hubble Telescope), we can see that some galaxies are curved, or lensed. This is caused by the light from these galaxies being ‘bent’ by a strong gravitational field on the way to Earth. We can’t actually see what’s causing these fields, and they are presumed to be caused by the invisible dark matter.

Dark Energy is quite different from Dark Matter. It makes up for around 73 percent of the total mass-energy of the universe, and yet we still have no direct evidence of it. It is believed to not interact with any of the fundamental forces other than gravity however, and is also believed to possess a strong negative pressure. This presumed pressure is the reason we attribute the universe’s expansion to dark energy.

Also, whilst dark matter is known to form clumps and clusters throughout the universe, dark energy is spread evenly throughout space. In all honesty though, that’s about as much as we know about dark energy. It’s a very new concept in physics, and is very difficult to study. But it could answer a lot of questions that need to be answered (quantum gravitation, for one).

What do you think dark matter really is?
Why do you think it is important?
And does it REALLY matter?
Is that so, cosmo?

Then you can tell me what you think it is and why it we wouldn’t exist without it.

I assume you know exactly what it is after spending half your life studying?
Or have you no real answer?

Comments:

I like how you stated your question – very clever!

First – what is dark matter. Dark matter is dark because it is unseen and because it is unknown or more importantly unexplained. Lord Kelvin in the 19th Century estimated that if the Sun burned do to chemical reactions it would burn out in 30,000 years. But as it was discovered that the earth had a history much older than that, there must be something else that fuels the Sun and stars. It was not until nuclear energy was discovered and investigated in the 20th Century that we understood what happens within a star like the Sun.

Dark matter represents a similar mystery. If galaxies represent all the matter that matters, then as Zwicky first discovered we would expect a drop off in the velocities of stars as they orbit further from the center of the galaxy. Instead, Zwicky saw that galaxies have rotation curves as though they were orders of magnitude greater than what we see. The same holds for galaxy clusters of all sizes. So a mystery.

The other part of darkness – unseen – comes from the fact if we have unseen matter all over the place but yet can see back to the beginning of the universe, then the dark matter cannot interact strongly with light. Call that our first clue.

As to the second part of your question. It matters only if faced with a mystery you must find an answer. Of course it would be difficult to accept any of our current physical theories if they cannot explain this mystery, and in turn the validity of any scientific pursuit if mysteries as fundamental as where is matter can be left unanswered. Whether or not it is a big deal once the answer is found – don’t know, but maybe.

Saffron to most folks is a culinary ingredient employed as a spice and coloring agent, but in the field of medicine, this product from the plant Crocus sativus can provide an extensive range of health benefits. Nevertheless, it’s most famous application today is in helping individuals slim down. After the famed Dr. Oz mentioned it in his show, saffron for fat loss is collecting lots of buzz. So what is it all about?

According to Dr. Mehmet Oz, using saffron for weight-loss has its calibers largely because of its power to tone down a man’s desire and cravings. Come to consider it, you do not really care what and how much you eat when you are in lousy disposition appropriate?

With the help of a medical study, experts could establish the key to saffron’s effectiveness in boosting weight-loss. This was because the brain is caused by this extract to create more serotonin – a hormone which is in charge of commanding physical and mental functions such as disposition and behavior. More 5-hydroxytryptamine translates to better control over desire and cravings.

Dr. Mehmet Oz himself took initiative in confirming the efficacy of saffron for weight reduction and therefore he conducted an experiment involving two girls with psychological eating customs. On the weekend, these were offered saffron supplements without confining their calorie intake. As a result, both girls experienced less want to nosh even under psychological stress. Both additionally lost weight of a total of 8 pounds.

In a study published in Nutrition Research during 2010, several 60 mildly overweight girls were categorized into two groups. The primary group was given saffron supplement while the 2nd group was provided a placebo.

Most of the clinical studies ran on saffron for weight loss made good use of a proprietary blend referred to as Satiereal. Dr. Oz mentioned Satiereal as a vital factor in saffron nutritional supplements, since it’s the one you might see in many well-known brands. Nutritional supplements comprising this proprietary combination will also be known to greatly help minimize a man’s craving for fat-increasing sugary foods.

In addition to having uses as a diet supplement, saffron extracts may also assist provide reduction for other health problems like asthma, coughing, acid reflux, sleeplessness, intestinal gasoline, and xeroderma. Girls who have problems with menstrual cramps and pre-menstrual syndrome may additionally profit from using this nutritional supplement. Pros also believe that it can become an aphrodisiac too.

Even with the weight loss advantages possible get utilizing saffron for weight-loss, you should still keep in mind that it’s not intended to be an instant solution on your weight dilemmas. Even Dr. Oz says that supplements are merely there to accentuate your weight-loss program and they must not replace a healthful diet and regular exercising. Forbearance and work are your allies in aiding your reach your ends.

But are you aware that there’s a specific sort of coffee that can also assist you lose the pounds? Enter green coffee bean extract – it’s just the same coffee beans, except this one didn’t undergo the roasting process.

The key to the fat-busting features of green coffee-bean extract lies with the material called chlorogenic acid. The procedure is important in reducing the bitterness of coffee beans, but the amount of chlorogenic acid has been sacrificed because of it. Several tests were done on this particular type of coffee extract as well as the results turned out to be quite reasonable in weight reduction.

One thing which is rather noticeable in diet supplements being sold nowadays is that a lot are truly produced from green coffee-bean extract. If you’re looking for a supplement, make sure it contains either GCA (green coffee antioxidant) or Svetol.

In regards to the chlorogenic acid content, the perfect amount that’s been mentioned by Dr. Oz are at 45%. This is only because the assessments performed previously all used a minimum chlorogenic acid of 45% and anything below may not be as effective. Dosage can range anywhere from 200milligrams to 800mg. Using the Dr. Oz experiment, the test subjects took 400milligrams, 3 times a day.

One thing you should take a look at carefully is the components list, as there are many green coffee extract supplements being sold-out there. Make sure that it does not contain any kind of fillers or binders. If an item does not have any elements listing, you’d best stay away from it. If by any chance you find any unknown ingredient, don’t hesitate to get in touch with the manufacturer to obtain clarifications about this.

To really be on the safe side, it would definitely be perfect to purchase goods which come from a producer. An excellent indicator is a good number of years they have been in the business and the feedback their goods get. Of course you may always jot down several brands and make an evaluation of each one according to variables including cost, characteristics, and consumer feedback.

Supplements produced from green coffee bean extract are usually safe and don’t cause any negative side effects, when used properly. But just as with any other commodity, using it beyond the intended dosage could be detrimental to your own health, particularly in case you are allergic to caffeine. Also, keep in mind that diet supplements such as this are not recommended for pregnant women.

As one last word, before you continue with buying supplements produced from green coffee bean extract, you should still plan to truly have a wholesome lifestyle. This means that you need to still not ignore having a well-balanced diet and sufficient exercise. Of course you could drop some weight without those, but the easiest way to shed weight and keep it off is burn those extra calories and should you eat quality foods.

If your company is an importer/exporter, wholesaler, or manufacturer, you are well aware that you have an inventory of goods or materials that get bigger with each passing day. It is just normal for company’s storage requirements to grow as the company does too. In relation to this, it would be appropriate to seek the help of Singapore storage services to help manage your goods.

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Finishing ultrasound tech training may help you get ahead in case you are seeking a position in the medical field. It would really be advantageous to you, no matter regardless of whether you’re just at the beginning of your career or have been working it for some time now. With the proper education for making use of sonograms and similar equipment, you should have a better-looking application. Having this schooling will furthermore allow you to be a more prized worker, and also allow you to request greater compensation.

It is vital that you are informed, though, that acquiring ultrasound tech training is not as effortless as it may well sound. There is a lot more to working with an ultrasound machine than plugging the machine in, making sure the camera works, directing the imaging gadget at the patient, and then taking a photo of the individual’s body parts. You must learn how to operate the sonogram with caution. You have to recognize where you could make use of the ultrasound machine on the individual’s body.

Best of all, you will acquire the ability to render the ultrasound far less agonizing for the individual if you have the suitable ultrasound technician training. You probably understand this – it’s not unusual for a affected person to look with dread at imaging equipment applied to delicate parts of their body by absolute unknown people. The awareness of how you can make clear the process carefully to these individuals may help a whole lot in sending their fear of the sonogram away, thereby making your work simpler to do.

What’s the initial step you have to take in seeking ultrasound tech training? The initial step is choosing the best institution for you. You need to look over the truth that ultrasound tech courses are obtainable at the training center you’re taking into account. The institution should be qualified to provide coaching on those courses. The institution must also have constantly fielded a considerable number of pupils finishing the qualification tests successfully.

There’s more to dealing with sonograms than understanding how they function and the way to manage them, so your lessons ought to be more than just that. Topics such as anatomy, physiology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, radiology and a great deal of others should form part of your classwork too. Your education must not restrict you within the four walls of your classroom, either. The institution must also give you an array of internships and fieldwork to choose from so that you can build up clinical experience with using sonograms. After all, experience remains to be the suitable coach you’ll ever get.

You also have a couple of alternatives in regards to concluding your coursework. If you’d like to enter the marketplace as soon as you can, finishing a diploma course or an associate degree would aid you. Possessing a diploma or associate will allow you to be entitled to entry-level positions available. You must get a bachelor’s degree if you’d like to go forward with your vocation much more quickly, nonetheless. Still, if you’re unable to hold out to get hired, you can get it up later on.

You likewise have a handful of possibilities available to you with the type of coursework in succeeding as an ultrasound tech that you could take. If you’ve just graduated from high school and you don’t have to obtain a job at once, or if you’re someone who can afford to take a leave from work to return to school, you must become a full-time student. Your weekdays is going to be devoted mainly on campus, attending classes and focusing on schoolwork. If you cannot take a leave to go back to school, though, your option is having courses on the internet. You may easily fit your web-based training sessions into your schedule irrespective of how stuffed it is.

You can get new and far better employment prospects in the medical sector if you perform well to develop into a competent ultrasound technician. Once you’ve concluded your ultrasound tech training from one of the better educational facilities available, it will be easier for you to obtain profitable work opportunities at medical centers in search for a capable ultrasound technician.

If perhaps it has been your lifelong goal to work as a radiology technician or radiographer and you wish to ensure it becomes a reality, you will need to seek guidance from radiology technician schools. If you want to have the expertise and experience of a seasoned radiographer, you must first pursue a formal training curriculum in a university, a community college, or a vocational school. You will need to dedicate a minimum of 2 years of your life in an effort to secure a radiology technician degree – the minimum prerequisite for this profession. You can also find certificate programs in radiologic technology available to all those who are currently earning a living in the line of medicine. An excellent training program is one that offers the ideal balance of schoolroom hours and clinical training.

In case you are to decide on one out of the multitude of radiology technician schools in existence, be sure you give some thought to several variables such as entrance terms, programs offered, school fees, and locale. With regards to inquiry with a couple of academic institutions, you will recognize that virtually all of them demand that you have a high school diploma or GED. You’ll get an easier time in the training program if you are excellent with numerous science and math courses. As you’re taking up your training course, you’re going to be given correct training regarding how to operate radiographic imaging technology which includes x-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT). Crucial subjects that will also be given focus are patient care, pathology, radiation physics, radiation safety, and image evaluation.

With regards to tuition fees, the numbers you will be presented with substantially varies according to where your institution is stationed, the kind of college degree you want to earn, and the history of the college. If you’re looking for superior quality training merged with value, the best choice would be to look for community colleges near your area. You may likewise consider making inquiries with technical schools however their tuition fees are normally higher. If you’re looking for the best array of options in relation to learning quality and services, then universities would be the way to go – just be prepared for the steeply-priced schooling expenses if you’re not enrolling as a scholar.

If perhaps there’s something that you need to absolutely be alert concerning radiology technician schools, it is the certification of their schooling programs. You can get a summary of educational facilities which provide licensed educational programs on your website of the JRCERT (Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology. Looking into university webpages is another good idea of figuring out whether they have adequate recognition via the JRCERT or any respected association. You ought to likewise factor in the complete content of their curriculum and ask the college whether it will be appropriate enough to get you past the credentialing conditions of the American Registry of Radiologic Technologist (ARRT).