My interest is in dark matter mostly and its affects on our universe aswell as the galaxies that float around in it. What its gravitational properties do to these objects and what not? And on anti matter i have very little understanding of that too. Thank you.


Antimatter is matter that has equal mass and opposite charge to normal matter. If it comes into contact with normal matter it causes mutual annihilation. Examples of antimatter are positrons, anti protons, anti neutrons etc. Here is antimatter (positrons) coming off a block of Potassium as protons decay into neutrons.

As for dark matter.

Dark matter is matter we don’t understand and can’t see. It is speculated the vast majority of the universe is made of Dark matter, which remember is a generic term for any matter we can’t see. We know it exists by the gravitational influence it has on matter we can see. As for the galaxies, we have observed that galaxies rotate in a strange way, namely the stars on the outer arms of the spirals orbit the centre of the galaxy roughly as fast as the stars close to the centre. This is not how gravity is supposed to work. Look at our solar system Mercury orbits the Sun every 88 days or so, Earth every 365 days and Neptune every 185 Earth years. So we expect the stars in the outer reaches of the galaxy to take longer to complete their orbits than those close to the centre. Since this is not the case there must be a heck of a lot more matter in this and every other galaxy than we can see with our telescopes.

Just remember dark matter simply means “we don’t know the heck it is”, the same goes for dark energy and dark flow, these are just words to describe something astronomers have observed that cosmologists and theoretical physicists can’t yet explain.

If dark matter makes up 96% of the universe, and visible matter only 4%, then is there dark matter around, on, or in the Earth or is it all out in space somewhere?


George is close. Dark matter exists in large halos which envelope galaxies. The dark matter halos can have an arbitrary shape, in fact many people have made “maps” of the dark matter by looking at gravitational lenses. The size of the halo can be a few to many tens of times larger than the galaxy which resides in side of the halo. Many very large halos can host several galaxies (though rarely more than a few galaxies per halo).

The mistake George makes is when he says that it’s “near the Galactic center”. This is very false. The galactic center is *inside* a dark matter halo. In fact, the center of the halo and the galaxy need not be the same, such as in the case of this galaxy cluster:

Also, since the dark halos host galaxies, and earth is in a galaxy, then earth is in a dark halo. Therefore, dark matter *EXISTS* all around us, even here on Earth. There are several major experiments set up to detect dark matter and measure it’s properties. You can learn about a famous experiment at:

Dark matter is the molasses of the cosmos, as I understand it, and it can’t influence gravity. I understand that it is a bit like steam in an engine, keeping the train in motion. Correct me if I’m wrong.


Dark matter is a lot like normal matter, but with one crucial exception: it doesn’t interact with the electromagnetic force. This means there is no electromagnetic attraction or repulsion, no interaction with light or any other form of EMR. Of course, the only reason we think this is because we can’t see it. Dark matter makes up for a huge percentage of the universe’s mass, and yet…we can’t see it. We can however, see it’s effects.

Dark matter still interacts with and exudes the gravitational force, and we can see this effect in a phenomenon known as Gravitational Lensing. Essentially, when we look into the sky and take pictures (with the Hubble Telescope), we can see that some galaxies are curved, or lensed. This is caused by the light from these galaxies being ‘bent’ by a strong gravitational field on the way to Earth. We can’t actually see what’s causing these fields, and they are presumed to be caused by the invisible dark matter.

Dark Energy is quite different from Dark Matter. It makes up for around 73 percent of the total mass-energy of the universe, and yet we still have no direct evidence of it. It is believed to not interact with any of the fundamental forces other than gravity however, and is also believed to possess a strong negative pressure. This presumed pressure is the reason we attribute the universe’s expansion to dark energy.

Also, whilst dark matter is known to form clumps and clusters throughout the universe, dark energy is spread evenly throughout space. In all honesty though, that’s about as much as we know about dark energy. It’s a very new concept in physics, and is very difficult to study. But it could answer a lot of questions that need to be answered (quantum gravitation, for one).

What do you think dark matter really is?
Why do you think it is important?
And does it REALLY matter?
Is that so, cosmo?

Then you can tell me what you think it is and why it we wouldn’t exist without it.

I assume you know exactly what it is after spending half your life studying?
Or have you no real answer?


I like how you stated your question – very clever!

First – what is dark matter. Dark matter is dark because it is unseen and because it is unknown or more importantly unexplained. Lord Kelvin in the 19th Century estimated that if the Sun burned do to chemical reactions it would burn out in 30,000 years. But as it was discovered that the earth had a history much older than that, there must be something else that fuels the Sun and stars. It was not until nuclear energy was discovered and investigated in the 20th Century that we understood what happens within a star like the Sun.

Dark matter represents a similar mystery. If galaxies represent all the matter that matters, then as Zwicky first discovered we would expect a drop off in the velocities of stars as they orbit further from the center of the galaxy. Instead, Zwicky saw that galaxies have rotation curves as though they were orders of magnitude greater than what we see. The same holds for galaxy clusters of all sizes. So a mystery.

The other part of darkness – unseen – comes from the fact if we have unseen matter all over the place but yet can see back to the beginning of the universe, then the dark matter cannot interact strongly with light. Call that our first clue.

As to the second part of your question. It matters only if faced with a mystery you must find an answer. Of course it would be difficult to accept any of our current physical theories if they cannot explain this mystery, and in turn the validity of any scientific pursuit if mysteries as fundamental as where is matter can be left unanswered. Whether or not it is a big deal once the answer is found – don’t know, but maybe.

There really has been lots of people excited in Singapore lately. It’s all due to the announcement the new Symphony Suites condo start has taken place. This is a brand new condominium that promises to give people, especially families, everything they could ask for and more. Are you really ready to see the type of life you’re really meant to have?

With the Symphony Suites condominium start people who choose to call it home can anticipate an increased standard of living that can leave no one desiring more. They are open to anybody who needs a great home in a cost that is reasonable. Each one comes with a 99-year leasehold and it guarantees to help keep your family happy in their own home surroundings for several years in the future. See more here:

How can you prefer to stay in an area that is readily inaccessible to other places, but a place that is so nicely planned out that you’ll not need to leave home in search of entertainment in any way? The Symphony Suites are located in the area called District 27/28. or Yishun Estate This implies it is near several bus stops and the Seletar Expressway. Additionally, it gives you easy entry to Bukit Timah Expressways and the Tampines and should you require it, the Yishun MRT is only a couple of minutes away.

For unsettled souls who want traveling and get out of the home to do exciting things, you can find opportunities for dining and shopping nearby. Additionally there are several parks in the region including Springleaf Park. If you’re more of a homebody, the Symphony Suites condo start offers several features that you will adore being part of. There are entertainment choices for both kids and adults around the website. Parents can take the time to relax in the Jacuzzi or work out in the gymnasium while their children splash in the water play area or the 50M pool. In case your kids are too young to venture out alone, no difficulty. There’s also a daycare center at which you can feel sure that they are being taken care of when you are enjoying a jog or hanging out on the tennis court.

Parents will likewise appreciate knowing that their kids can get to school easily. There are several schools close by that children can attend in the time they begin primary school through when it’s time for them to attend the Yishun Junior College. You’ll not need to worry about them outgrowing the area that you call home again.

If your partner and you have really not yet started your family, it is possible to plan ahead for exactly how many rooms you might need. Subsequently you will be able to take your time watching your family grow over the years. You should have additional room for when they bring grandkids and you to visit if you curently have children who are almost grown. The number of bedrooms you can choose will make it simple and space limitations will not restrict at all you.

You must also look at space and the size of the homes which are available with the Symphony Suites condo launch. Saying a house has four bedrooms does not do anyone much good if all of the rooms are tiny. However, this condominium was created to be broad and give you every bit of useable floor space that is offered to you personally. If you are still worried about feeling cramped in a few of the houses that are smaller, don’t be concerned about it any longer. There is a full view window for sale in every residence to offer the entire feel of more space. These windows offer a view that you will love seeing each and every day.

The Symphony Suites condo start brings delight to the area. Families adore the idea of dwelling in a secure place and having the ability to understand that while they are working, their children will not be bored at home. In reality, kids and other children can meet and mingle and do a number of actions to ensure boredom is never a concern for anyone. What more would you ask for?

It operates by removing the toxins in your body which will be able to help you in many other ways too. All it takes is one nutritional supplement and you’ll feel better than you ever imagined. Thus, stop the worry about aging and feel better in every way when you purchase astaxanthin supplements that are finest accessible.

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Does it make you interested to understand what it could do for you? This is quite a powerful antioxidant that is a portion of a group referred to as carotenoids. Carotenoids are not bad for color in our foods and shows a lot are antioxidants. Betacarotene also falls into this class and it’s discovered largely within sea foods. But when you buy best natural astaxanthin supplement you will immediately get a higher, healthier dose of all the antioxidants that are best. It is more than you could get from eating two pounds of Pacific salmon daily and you will get it in one little capsule. Which would you do to get the carotenoids you’ll need?

Astaxanthin also encourages your immune system to work better than before so you’re able to stay fitter. To get exactly the same results as one supplementary pill you would need to change your whole routine up and do things such as prevent smoking and eat organic foods, lower your stress levels, exercise more regularly. These things are great for you to do anyway, but tough for most individuals to handle. You’ll also need to make sure your vitamin D levels stay up. Another bonus is that the astaxanthin supplement is much more strong than another type of vitamin that helps the immune system that is understood by everyone as vitamin C. Vitamin C is fantastic, but it might be much better with a little extra supplementary help from astaxanthin.

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When you feel better after being quite active throughout the day and are willing to think clearer you should choose to purchase greatest astaxanthin supplement. It’ll give your immune system a boost and more energy as well. You will notice a healthier cardiovascular system, less damage from sun’s UV rays on your face, and more energy so what does one actually need to lose? You may simply look and feel better than ever before.

Saffron to most folks is a culinary ingredient employed as a spice and coloring agent, but in the field of medicine, this product from the plant Crocus sativus can provide an extensive range of health benefits. Nevertheless, it’s most famous application today is in helping individuals slim down. After the famed Dr. Oz mentioned it in his show, saffron for fat loss is collecting lots of buzz. So what is it all about?

According to Dr. Mehmet Oz, using saffron for weight-loss has its calibers largely because of its power to tone down a man’s desire and cravings. Come to consider it, you do not really care what and how much you eat when you are in lousy disposition appropriate?

With the help of a medical study, experts could establish the key to saffron’s effectiveness in boosting weight-loss. This was because the brain is caused by this extract to create more serotonin – a hormone which is in charge of commanding physical and mental functions such as disposition and behavior. More 5-hydroxytryptamine translates to better control over desire and cravings.

Dr. Mehmet Oz himself took initiative in confirming the efficacy of saffron for weight reduction and therefore he conducted an experiment involving two girls with psychological eating customs. On the weekend, these were offered saffron supplements without confining their calorie intake. As a result, both girls experienced less want to nosh even under psychological stress. Both additionally lost weight of a total of 8 pounds.

In a study published in Nutrition Research during 2010, several 60 mildly overweight girls were categorized into two groups. The primary group was given saffron supplement while the 2nd group was provided a placebo.

Most of the clinical studies ran on saffron for weight loss made good use of a proprietary blend referred to as Satiereal. Dr. Oz mentioned Satiereal as a vital factor in saffron nutritional supplements, since it’s the one you might see in many well-known brands. Nutritional supplements comprising this proprietary combination will also be known to greatly help minimize a man’s craving for fat-increasing sugary foods.

In addition to having uses as a diet supplement, saffron extracts may also assist provide reduction for other health problems like asthma, coughing, acid reflux, sleeplessness, intestinal gasoline, and xeroderma. Girls who have problems with menstrual cramps and pre-menstrual syndrome may additionally profit from using this nutritional supplement. Pros also believe that it can become an aphrodisiac too.

Even with the weight loss advantages possible get utilizing saffron for weight-loss, you should still keep in mind that it’s not intended to be an instant solution on your weight dilemmas. Even Dr. Oz says that supplements are merely there to accentuate your weight-loss program and they must not replace a healthful diet and regular exercising. Forbearance and work are your allies in aiding your reach your ends.

But are you aware that there’s a specific sort of coffee that can also assist you lose the pounds? Enter green coffee bean extract – it’s just the same coffee beans, except this one didn’t undergo the roasting process.

The key to the fat-busting features of green coffee-bean extract lies with the material called chlorogenic acid. The procedure is important in reducing the bitterness of coffee beans, but the amount of chlorogenic acid has been sacrificed because of it. Several tests were done on this particular type of coffee extract as well as the results turned out to be quite reasonable in weight reduction.

One thing which is rather noticeable in diet supplements being sold nowadays is that a lot are truly produced from green coffee-bean extract. If you’re looking for a supplement, make sure it contains either GCA (green coffee antioxidant) or Svetol.

In regards to the chlorogenic acid content, the perfect amount that’s been mentioned by Dr. Oz are at 45%. This is only because the assessments performed previously all used a minimum chlorogenic acid of 45% and anything below may not be as effective. Dosage can range anywhere from 200milligrams to 800mg. Using the Dr. Oz experiment, the test subjects took 400milligrams, 3 times a day.

One thing you should take a look at carefully is the components list, as there are many green coffee extract supplements being sold-out there. Make sure that it does not contain any kind of fillers or binders. If an item does not have any elements listing, you’d best stay away from it. If by any chance you find any unknown ingredient, don’t hesitate to get in touch with the manufacturer to obtain clarifications about this.

To really be on the safe side, it would definitely be perfect to purchase goods which come from a producer. An excellent indicator is a good number of years they have been in the business and the feedback their goods get. Of course you may always jot down several brands and make an evaluation of each one according to variables including cost, characteristics, and consumer feedback.

Supplements produced from green coffee bean extract are usually safe and don’t cause any negative side effects, when used properly. But just as with any other commodity, using it beyond the intended dosage could be detrimental to your own health, particularly in case you are allergic to caffeine. Also, keep in mind that diet supplements such as this are not recommended for pregnant women.

As one last word, before you continue with buying supplements produced from green coffee bean extract, you should still plan to truly have a wholesome lifestyle. This means that you need to still not ignore having a well-balanced diet and sufficient exercise. Of course you could drop some weight without those, but the easiest way to shed weight and keep it off is burn those extra calories and should you eat quality foods.

If your company is an importer/exporter, wholesaler, or manufacturer, you are well aware that you have an inventory of goods or materials that get bigger with each passing day. It is just normal for company’s storage requirements to grow as the company does too. In relation to this, it would be appropriate to seek the help of Singapore storage services to help manage your goods.

By getting assistance from Singapore storage services, your inventory of goods or materials can be organized properly and systematically. Warehouse storage systems are employed to provide storage solutions for the company and common examples include pallet rack, mezzanine, cantilever, cartonized storage, industrial shelving, bin storage, conventional storage, and retrieval systems.

The main benefit of employing the services of a Singapore storage company is that warehouse space can be utilized in the most efficient way possible. This is the reason for the different types of warehouse storage systems – each system is designed to meet the needs of specific industries. Many warehouse storage systems are great at utilizing both horizontal and vertical space.

You should not think twice about spending a little more so that the storage, handling, and shipping of your merchandise or inventory can be made organized and secure. A reliable Singapore storage company should be able to provide an optimized way of storing your goods to make sure that they get to your clients on time and they arrive safely as well.

There are also instances wherein your inventory of merchandise or materials requires special handling such as frozen meat or seafood – in this case, you definitely need the help of a good Singapore storage company. Although it may cost you a little more, it’s a lot better than having to risk the safety and security of your goods with cheap storage services.

Singapore storage companies can also offer your company customized storage systems that will fit your specific type of industry. For example, if your business is about frozen seafood, then you can opt for cold storage and chilled storage systems to ensure that your perishable goods are properly taken care of.

Whenever we speak about having your own website setup, having your own domain is essential. You should bear in mind that domains are a key investment of any online business, something which can bring about successful business operations. It is through domain registrars that you are able to avail of your own domain and the ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers oversees these activities. The primary method that one could register domain name is by initially selecting a unique name and then verify its availability by going to a certain domain registrar’s website and taking advantage of their cost-free search feature.

For an online business to prosper, it is important that you choose a decent domain name and a proven way to achieve this is by using a keyword research program. Whenever people check out search engines to obtain material, many of them never click beyond the first page of the search engine results and thus you need to seek to get your website to superior search engine rankings. The process of getting your online site to the top standings of search engines is known as SEO (search engine optimization) and making use of keyword-rich names is a popular SEO method. It is usually a sensible strategy to come up with a short but descriptive domain name which can help people recall your webpage.

Once you have chosen your domain name, you will likewise have got to verify that there is an available TLD (top-level domain) for it. It is usually the leading TLD’s that you must decide for your domain name. As much as possible, aim to register domain name under a popular TLD and only go with others anytime you are left with no alternative. Right after your domain name has been finalized, make sure that you have it registered without delay even when you haven’t setup a website yet. You have to be aware that domain names get sold very quickly every single day, thus it is important to act as soon as possible.

If you’re planning to register domain name, you will need to shell out about $10 for a time of one year. You must then renew your registration soon after 12 months so as to enjoy the liberties of your domain. It might be a great idea to obtain a longer registration period if you think that your enterprise has an outstanding improvement capability. You have to bear in mind to register the domain under your name mainly because you’ll never know what problems await if it is registered under another individual. It is also a good idea to familiarize yourself with the history of the domain registrar you’ll be working with just before going forward with the registration procedure.

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